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Logical Reasoning For RBI Assistant and RRB po/clerk Main

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GKRECALL bring you the complete and important daily Reasoning  to achieve more marks in Banking, Insurance, UPSC, SSC, CLAT, Railways and all other competitive Exams. We prepare it based on our daily current affairs.Hope you like it.

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START QUIZ

1.Direction: In question below a statement followed by three courses of action is given numbered I, II and III. A course of action is a step or administrative decision to be taken for improvement, follow-up or further action in regard to the problem, policy, etc. On the basis of the information given in the statement, you have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follow(s).

Statement: The chemical factory in the city has suffered an explosion and leakage of some chemicals are suspected. Many employees died and got seriously injured. 

Course of Actions: 

I. The municipal administration should immediately evacuate everyone from the immediate vicinity and harmful range of chemicals. 

II. The owner of the factory should be immediately arrested and punished. 

III. The disaster management team should quarantine the area and stop the leaks preventing further accidents.

If only II and III follow

If only I follows

If only II follows

If only I and III follow

None follows


2.A recent survey revealed that most people don’t trust the mainstream media and are even more suspicious of social media. They believe that the media has gone from reporting news that is factual to reporting news that supports their political and liberal agenda. Opinions dominate over facts, extrapolation of the truth is normal and sensationalizing trivial matters to up viewer/reader numbers is the norm these days. 

Which of the following statements, if true, undermines the given argument?

Bias is a perspective that need not necessarily be true, what some consider prejudiced reporting might be factual news for others.

Only 24% people polled in more than 30 countries said that the media did a good job of separating fact from fiction.

Long ago the media worked to get both sides of an issue to let the people decide what is right.

Sure, the people in the media will have their opinions as everyone else but the problem occurs when the opinion effects their ability to do their job of reporting the facts.

Media has never really been trustworthy, what gave them credibility for so long was our acceptance.


3.Statement: 

State-run Energy Efficiency Services (EESL) has scrapped its second tender for procurement of 10,000 electric cars as the industry awaits clarification on specifications for chargers which will allow higher end, luxury automakers to come into the picture. This tender was floated in April, and had been on hold after a preliminary pre-bid meeting. A similar tender was floated in August last year, and the rollout of 10,000 cars under the tender was expected to be complete by March 2019. 

Why is EEL scraping the tender for procurement of 10,000 electric cars? 

Arguments: 

I. The share of luxury cars could go further up, since it would be a good way of aggregating demand, Kumar said. This, however, strictly depends on the final order from DST. 

II. Interestingly, the tender had set aside 20% share of the total order for higher end and upgraded sedans category, which would allow foreign automakers like Nissan, Hyundai, Kia Motors to drive away with a fair share of the tender. 

III. EESL, said that the company has been awaiting clarification from the Department of Science & Technology (DST) to issue the standard norms for charging stations because of which the tender was first put on hold and now has been scrapped entirely.

None is strong.

All except III and II are strong.

All except II and I are strong.

Only II is strong.

All are strong.


4.In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the following assumption and decide which of the assumption is implicit in the statement.

Statement: GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare’s share in the health drinks market in terms of value fell by 170 basis points in 2018-19, the steepest in at least five years, even as Mondelez and Abbott made up ground. The maker of Horlicks and Boost saw its value share declining to 53.8% in FY19, according to its investor presentation quoting Nielsen data. Mondelez, maker of Bournvita, increased its share by 30 bps to 15.2% while the share of Abbott, maker of Pediasure and Ensure, rose 50 bps to 9.2%. “I think the biggest gainer has been Bournvita. Then there are some fringe players,” said Navneet Saluja, managing director, GSK Consumer, at an investors call. “In volumes share, it’s been really good in the last couple of years, but in value market share, we have been facing headwinds for 8-10 years.”

Assumptions:

I. GSK Consumer’s volume share remained unchanged at 63.9% in FY19. In the first month of the new fiscal, it managed to increase to 65.2%, from 63.8% in April 2018. The company said volume is the “most critical measure” as it shows the number of consumers using its brands. India’s health food drinks category is valued at Rs 6,500 crore, growing 12% a year by volumes and 9% by value.

II. Analysts, however, pointed out that rivals Mondelez and Abbott went for sharper price hikes and premium products to boost their value share. “This was the fourth consecutive quarter of value market share decline for Horlicks; Bournvita has been wresting market share from GSK,” said Abneesh Roy, senior vice-president, Edelweiss Securities. “However, the pace of decline has slowed and Horlicks continues to be the leader in the health food drinks category.”

Both I and II are implicit

Either I or II is implicit

None is implicit

Only II is implicit

Only I is implicit


5.In each question below is given a statement followed by three assumptions numbered I, II and III. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the following assumption and decide which of the assumption is implicit in the statement.

Statement: With the definition of the ‘kilogram’ getting a global, technical makeover, textbooks — from those used in schools to ones recommended by engineering colleges in India — are set to undergo an update. Until May 20, the kilogram derived its provenance from the weight of a block of a platinum-iridium alloy housed at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France. All other prototypes that served as national reference standards, including the one at New Delhi’s CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (NPL), were calibrated to it.

Assumptions:

I. The measures are all now defined on the basis of unchanging universal, physics constants. The kilogram now hinges on the definition of the Planck Constant, a constant of nature that relates to how matter releases energy.

II. The CSIR-NPL, which is India’s official reference keeper of units of measurements, on May 20, released a set of recommendations requiring that school textbooks, engineering-education books, and course curriculum update the definition of the kilogram.

III. An updated kilogram doesn’t mean that weights everywhere will be thrown off balance. For everyday measurements, consumers wanting to calibrate their instruments — whether it’s for high-precision drug manufacturing or retail weighing machines — will continue doing it the same way.

None is implicit

Only I is implicit

Both II and III are implicit

Both I and II are implicit

Only II is implicit


6.In the question below, are given a statement followed by two courses of actions numbered I and II. On the basis of the information given, you have to assume everything in the statement to be true, and then decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follow(s) for pursuing.

Statement: Recently, India, Australia, Japan and the US discussed cooperation in the areas of connectivity and infrastructure development at Bangkok and reaffirmed their commitment towards a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific region. An External Affairs Ministry release said that diplomats from the four countries met in the Thai capital for consultations on regional and global issues of common interest.

Courses of action:

I. The countries reaffirmed their commitment towards a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific Region based on shared values and principles, adding that they also reiterated their strong support for ASEAN-centrality and ASEAN-led mechanisms in the regional architecture for the Indo-Pacific and in this regard, are planning the initiative of ASEAN towards a common vision for the Indo-Pacific.

II. The officials discussed cooperation in the areas of connectivity and infrastructure development, regional security including counter-terrorism, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, maritime cooperation, and cyber security issues with a view to promoting peace, stability and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region and are planning to achieve the same.

Only II follows

Neither I nor II follows

Either I or II follows

Only I follows

All follow


7. The citizens of Miyoto city were the victims of atomic bombing during the world war 2. A study conducted among them shows majority of them suffer from physical deformities even now, over 70 years after that dreadful day. The bombing also reduced the average life span of Miyoto citizens to well below fifty and the rendered the land uncultivable. 

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the passage? 

1) Atomic radiation cause more dead than physical deformities. 

2) The only proof that shows Miyoto was ever hit by atomic bomb is its uncultivable land.

3) Atomic radiation causes physical deformities even in the future generation of an affected person and can render the land uncultivable.

4) It takes nearly 70 years for the harmful effect of bombing to set in.

Conclusions 1 and 2

Conclusion 2 only

Conclusions 2 and 3

Conclusion 3 only

Conclusions 2, 3 and 4


8.In the question below, are given a statement followed by two courses of actions numbered I and II. On the basis of the information given, you have to assume everything in the statement to be true, and then decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follow(s) for pursuing.

Statement: Recently, India, Australia, Japan and the US discussed cooperation in the areas of connectivity and infrastructure development at Bangkok and reaffirmed their commitment towards a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific region. An External Affairs Ministry release said that diplomats from the four countries met in the Thai capital for consultations on regional and global issues of common interest.

Courses of action:

I. The countries reaffirmed their commitment towards a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific Region based on shared values and principles, adding that they also reiterated their strong support for ASEAN-centrality and ASEAN-led mechanisms in the regional architecture for the Indo-Pacific and in this regard, are planning the initiative of ASEAN towards a common vision for the Indo-Pacific.

II. The officials discussed cooperation in the areas of connectivity and infrastructure development, regional security including counter-terrorism, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, maritime cooperation, and cyber security issues with a view to promoting peace, stability and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region and are planning to achieve the same.

Only II follows

Neither I nor II follows

Either I or II follows

Only I follows

All follow


9.The director of the movie "Night's dream" decided to replace the female actor in the lead role Miss Jolie with Miss Rao as Miss Jolie met with an accident while shooting for her ongoing movie "The Thriller" and would not be able to shoot for the next six months. With this aside, the movie is projected to be one of the blockbusters of the year making a net profit of about 800 crores.

Which of the following can be concluded from the above statement?

I. Miss Rao does not have any other movie to be shot in the next six months

II. Miss Rao is a proper replacement of Miss Jolie

III. The actors should be physically fit while acting in movies.

IV. The part of the movie "Night's dream" which involves the female actor, in the leading role is going to be shot in the next six months.

Only I

Only II

Only III

Both II and IV

None of these


10.The citizens of Miyoto city were the victims of atomic bombing during the world war 2. A study conducted among them shows majority of them suffer from physical deformities even now, over 70 years after that dreadful day. The bombing also reduced the average life span of Miyoto citizens to well below fifty and the rendered the land uncultivable. 

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the passage? 

1) Atomic radiation cause more dead than physical deformities. 

2) The only proof that shows Miyoto was ever hit by atomic bomb is its uncultivable land.

3) Atomic radiation causes physical deformities even in the future generation of an affected person and can render the land uncultivable.

4) It takes nearly 70 years for the harmful effect of bombing to set in.

Conclusions 1 and 2

Conclusion 2 only

Conclusions 2 and 3

Conclusion 3 only

Conclusions 2, 3 and 4


SOLUTIONS:

1.Evacuatingpeople from harm’s way and preventing further disaster by containing the situation must be the first course of action in any disaster. Finding out why it happened and punishing can be done in a later stage when the accident is contained and is under contprol. So I and III must be the course of action.

2.The given argument states that people no longer feel mainstream news can be trusted as they believe that opinions have replaced facts. The media colors facts as per their political belief system and then reports it. Option A correctly undermines the reasoning stated above by calling into question the concept of bias. Bias is a matter of perspective, what you might consider as biased reporting might actually be factual data. Therefore, option A is the correct answer.

3.The correct answer is option 3, i.e. All except II and I are strong. 

We first make sure to read the statement carefully and then see what immediate inferences can be drawn based on our first reading. The next step is to look at the arguments given in the options, analyze them and see if they seem relevant with respect to the information/data provided to us. Finally, it is very important to study the question closely. 

Following the aforementioned steps we must analyze the given statement and the corresponding question closely. Argument III answers the question perfectly and explains the reason for the EESL scrapping the tender because it is waiting for the clarification from DST to issue standard norms. Moreover, in the last of the argument 3, it is explicitly stated that it is the reason for the scrapping of the deal. 

Both II and I can be rejected as they do not specify the reason for scrapping of the deal and wander around other aspects and thus, both can be rejected. 

Thus, the correct answer is option 3.

4.The correct answer is option D, i.e. Only II is implicit. 

An assumption is a thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof.

The given context is about GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare’s share in the health drinks market. Makers of drinks namely Horlicks and Boost saw its value share declining to 53.8% in FY19. Mondelez, maker of Bournvita, increased its share by 30 bps to 15.2% while the share of Abbott, maker of Pediasure and Ensure, rose 50 bps to 9.2%. The crux of the passage regarding the performance of the GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare’s share in the health drinks is that in volumes share, it’s been really good in the last couple of years, but in value market share, it is facing issues. Thus, a suitable assumption must also account for the same.

Assumption (I) is inappropriate as in the beginning itself it says GSK Consumer’s volume share remained unchanged at 63.9% in FY19 whereas the general category of India’s health food drinks category is valued at Rs 6,500 crore, growing 12% a year by volumes and 9% by value. This shows that overall the health food drinks category is growing but GSK’s performance has been stable which opposes the fact presented that it is doing really good in the last couple of years in terms of volumes share.

Assumption (II) is directed towards the fact that GSK in terms of value market share is facing issues as it gives explanation for Bournvita facing issues and also highlights that the pace of decline has slowed and Horlicks continues to be the leader in the health food drinks category. This signifies the level of hardships the drink makers are facing in terms of value share. Thus, it is an appropriate assumption directed in the right direction.

Thus, the most appropriate answer choice is option D.

5.The correct answer is option D, i.e. Both I and II are implicit. 

An assumption is a statement that is used as the premise of a particular agreement but may not be accepted otherwise. In simpler words an assumption is

is a thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof.

From the statement, it is evident that the definition of ‘kilogram’ is set to undergo an update. Until May 20, the kilogram derived its provenance from the weight of a block of a platinum-iridium alloy housed at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France. All other prototypes that served as national reference standards, including the one at New Delhi’s CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (NPL), were calibrated to it. Now a new method has been devised for calculating the value of a kilogram and correspondingly updates will be made in textbooks and other stuff.

Assumption (I) can be assumed to be the new method of calculating the value of ‘kilogram’ without proof. It is a suitable assumption in the same direction of the given context.

Assumption (II) is a perfect assumption based on the information provided in the given context. It perfectly highlights the fact that the CSIR-NPL released a set of recommendations for updates and correspondingly updates will be done in textbooks and other relevant material regarding the definition of the kilogram.

Assumption (III) can be rejected as it is vague. In the statement it is being said that updates will be done but it talks about the usage of weights on daily basis will not be altered which cannot be backed up from any information provided in the given context.

Thus, all of the assumptions except (III) are relevant and thus the most appropriate answer choice is option D.

6.The correct answer is option D, i.e. Only I follows.

A course of action is something that needs to be done considering the present scenario in mind.

A suitable course of action must deal with the intent of the nations to deal with the regional and global issues of common interest.

Course of action (II) can be rejected as it is less concrete as compared to course of action (I).

Both the course of action deal with the nations planning to achieve a solution to deal with the regional and global issues of common interest but course of action (I) specifies the action more as compared to the other. While course of action (II) presents a general view that the nations are planning to achieve the same, it highlights the initiative of ASEAN towards a common vision for the Indo-Pacific which will be more concrete in stabilizing the issue. As a result between (I) and (II), course of action (I) is selected as the answer choice.

Thus, the course of action (II) is irrelevant and can be rejected and the correct answer choice is option D.

7.Here statement 1 and 4 are wrong conclusion, as it’s nowhere mentioned in the paragraph that bombing caused more death than deformities and the effects were immediate, it didn’t set in after 70 years. The deformities were still there even after 70 years according to given paragraph. 

As for statement 3, uncultivable land is not the only proof of bombing after 70 years. Deformities and reduced life span is also due to bombing. Hence we cannot draw 3 as a conclusion. 

Only 3 states that deformities are still in effect and so is the effect of bombing on the land. So only conclusion we can draw is statement 3. Hence option D

8.The correct answer is option D, i.e. Only I follows.

A course of action is something that needs to be done considering the present scenario in mind.

A suitable course of action must deal with the intent of the nations to deal with the regional and global issues of common interest.

Course of action (II) can be rejected as it is less concrete as compared to course of action (I).

Both the course of action deal with the nations planning to achieve a solution to deal with the regional and global issues of common interest but course of action (I) specifies the action more as compared to the other. While course of action (II) presents a general view that the nations are planning to achieve the same, it highlights the initiative of ASEAN towards a common vision for the Indo-Pacific which will be more concrete in stabilizing the issue. As a result between (I) and (II), course of action (I) is selected as the answer choice.

Thus, the course of action (II) is irrelevant and can be rejected and the correct answer choice is option D.

9.Choice (A): There is no information given about how Miss Rao is placed in the next six months. Choice (A) is out of context. 

Choice (B): As the director has decided to replace Miss Jolie with Miss Rao, here the assumption of the director is that his decision is proper, i e., the replacement is a 

proper one. Choice (B) is an assumption. 

Choice (C): The reason why Miss Jolie is being replaced is that she is not physically fit. Hence it can be inferred from the statement is that; an actor should be physically fit while acting. Choice (C) is an inference. 

Choice (D): From the statement it is clear that the shooting during the next six months is very important. Miss Jolie is being replaced because she would not be able to shoot for the next six months that implies that the part of the movie where she is involved is going to be shot in the next six months. Choice (D) is the conclusion

10.Here statement 1 and 4 are wrong conclusion, as it’s nowhere mentioned in the paragraph that bombing caused more death than deformities and the effects were immediate, it didn’t set in after 70 years. The deformities were still there even after 70 years according to given paragraph. 

As for statement 3, uncultivable land is not the only proof of bombing after 70 years. Deformities and reduced life span is also due to bombing. Hence we cannot draw 3 as a conclusion. 

Only 3 states that deformities are still in effect and so is the effect of bombing on the land. So only conclusion we can draw is statement 3. Hence option D