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English Quiz For RRB PO / Clerk and RBI Assistant Mains

ENGLISH QUIZ FOR RRB PO/CLERK AND RBI ASSISTANT MAIN 2020

Welcome to online English quiz by GkrecallGkrecall have started QUIZ program for SBI PO PRELIM AND SBI CLERK MAIN 2020 and we are creating sample questions in English section daily, THESE TYPE OF QUESTIONS ARE MOST EXPECTED IN EXAM!!! So never missout on anything.

Here are some English questions, which are most probable to be asked in IBPS Clerk PRELIM 2020!!!

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1.Directions (1-6): Given below are four sentences which are divided into several parts. Answer the following questions based on these given statements.

[A] [1] satisfy the grand plans of a master builder, or seen as / [2] exasperatingly unable to make the best of opportunities / [3]that wise governments offered them/ [4] they were either treated as lifeless objects that could be moved around to

[B] [1] economist is currently the Ford Foundation International / [2] Professor of Economics at the US-based / [3] born in Mumbai, the 58-year-old /[4] Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

[C] [1] often displayed some insensitivity / [2] uplift—the poor / [3] development economics has / [4] to those it aims to

[D] [1] the trio has redeveloped the field of / [2] researchers in direct contact with the poor / [3] of new experimental methods that put / [4] development economics with the aid

[E] [1]been awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize for Economics, Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo / [2]and Michael Kremer, have led a revolution that / [3]the three development economists who have / [4]has overturned that status quo

Q1. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the rearrangement of the sentence (A)?

(a) 1432

(b) 4123

(c) 4231

(d) 3412

(e) None of these


Q2. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the rearrangement of the sentence (D)?

(a) 1432

(b) 2143

(c) 4213

(d) 4231

(e) None of these.


Q3. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the rearrangement of the sentence (B)?

(a) 4123

(b) 2143

(c) 4231

(d) 3124

(e) None of these


Q4. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the rearrangement of the sentence (C)?

(a) 1432

(b) 3142

(c) 2413

(d) 3124

(e) None of these.


Q5. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the rearrangement of the sentence (E)?

(a) 1432

(b) 3142

(c) 2413

(d) 3124

(e) None of these.


Q6. Rearrange the given four sentences in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and also choose the one which doesn’t match the theme of the passage so formed.

(a) DBEA; C

(b) DCAE; B

(c) CAED; B

(d) BACD; E

(e) None of these.

Directions (7-10): In the questions below a statement is given with two blanks in it. For each blank three alternatives are provided in the columns. Choose the alternative from the corresponding column that would fit the give blanks to make the given sentence grammatically correct and contextually meaningful.

 [I] - A , B ,C    [II] - D ,E ,F


Q7. The only significant issue of debate is over the cause of the_________[I]_________, with the World Bank largely echoing what the Centre’s economic __________[II]___________ have been saying — that this is a cyclical slowdown, execrated by global influences.

 [I]                                                        [II]

(A) irascible (D) loquacious

(B) monologue (E) consternations

(C) malaise (F) mandarins

(a) B-E

(b) C-D

(c) A-F

(d) C-F

(e) A-E


Q8. Asserting that the weak financial sector is becoming a drag on momentum, with the country’s banks yet to regain __________[I]___________from the depressing burden of bad loans, the World Bank warned that non-banking financial companies’ significant share in total credit and their linkages with banks “pose broad-based _________[II]________ risks”. 

[I]                                [II]

(A) vigour (D) azure

(B) vitriolic (E) contagion

(C) moribund (F) askance

(a) B-E

(b) C-D

(c) A-F

(d) C-F

(e) A-E


Q9. Released ahead of the annual meeting of the IMF and World Bank, Ms. Gopinath in the World Economic Outlook said that this __________[I]__________growth is a consequence of rising trade barriers; and _________[II]_________uncertainty surrounding trade and geopolitics.

[I]                                                  [II]

(A) interminable (D) despondent

(B) unobtrusive (E) elevated

(C) perpetual (F) lurid

(a) B-E

(b) C-D

(c) A-F

(d) C-F

(e) A-E


Q10. The automobile industry is contracting owing also to _________[I]____________shocks, such as disruptions from new emission standards in the euro area and China that have had ________[II]_________effects.

[I]                                                         [II]

(A) idiosyncratic                  (D) insouciance

(B) indigent                        (E) mendacious

(C) solicitous.                      (F) tenacious

(a) B-E

(b) C-D

(c) A-F

(d) C-F

(e) A-E

READING COMPREHENSION

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions.

In 2005, India made some remarkable amendments to the Indian Patents Act of 1970, to keep medicines affordable in the country. Since then we have faced a significant blowback not just from the global pharmaceutical industry but also from developed world including from the U.S. and the European Union.

At the heart of the matter are the strong standards for patents which India introduced to promote genuine innovation across all fields of technology, in perfect compliance with the World Trade Organisation (WTO) norms. In contrast, developed countries have weaker standards as a result of incessant lobbying by corporate behemoths. Twelve years later, we now know what it means: India rejects bad patents in far greater number than developed countries.

The findings of a new study which examined all 1,723 pharmaceutical applications rejected by the Indian Patent Office (IPO) between 2009 and 2016 have been an eye-opener.

Section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act, a provision introduced to restrict the patenting of new forms of known pharmaceutical substances, became the subject of international attention after its use in rejecting a patent application by Novartis for the anti-cancer drug, Gleevec. It was found that exceptions to patentability in Section 3 of the Act, which includes Section 3(d), were responsible for 65% of all rejected pharmaceutical patent applications.

Over its short lifetime, Section 3(d) has survived a challenge to its constitutionality before the Madras High Court, and Novartis’s fight against the rejection of its patent that went to the Supreme Court. Both courts ruled decisively to uphold the legality of Section 3(d). The United States Trade Representative has also repeatedly rebuked India for this provision in its Special 301 Report, despite its perfect compliance with WTO norms. While the world’s attention is still fixed on this legal experiment that the Indian Parliament introduced into law, there has been a dearth of information on how the IPO has applied Section 3(d). We found that it filters the bad from the good, with the lowest possible administrative and financial burden.

An astonishing 45% of all rejected pharmaceutical patent applications cited Section 3(d) as a reason for rejection: the applications were identified as mere variants of known compounds that lacked a demonstrable increase in therapeutic value.

Between 1995 and 2005, prior to our new law, India provided a temporary measure to receive patent applications for pharmaceutical products at the IPO, called the mailbox system. Though introduced in 2005, the use of Section 3(d) gradually increased from 2009 when mailbox applications were examined. The spike coincides with the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Novartis case, in April 2013. It would appear that this judgment provided legal certainty to Indian patent law in general, and Section 3(d) in particular, enabling the IPO to weed out trivial innovations.

In the last decade, we found that the IPO rejected about 95% of all pharmaceutical patent applications on its own. Only 5% were through the intervention of a third party, such as a pre-grant opponent. Our basic patentability criteria, that the invention should be new, involve an inventive step (also known as non-obviousness), and should be capable of industrial application, were the most frequently used grounds for rejection, followed by the exceptions to patentability grounds in Section 3.

Section 3(d) invaluably equips the IPO with a yardstick to evaluate applications that are merely trivial innovations over existing technology. In cases where the invention is a variant of a known substance, the criterion for patentability is proof of a necessary improvement in its performance for its designated use, i.e., increased efficacy. In the context of pharmaceuticals, as was the case involving Novartis, this translates to evidence of an improvement in therapeutic efficacy. In other words, trivial innovation must result in a far better product in order to qualify for patent protection.

Within the arcane world of patent law, an argument against provisions such as Section 3(d) is that it is no more than an extension of one of the basic requirements of patentability: non-obviousness. Certainly, for an application to be deemed non-obvious, it has to establish a technical advance over what was known before.

But non-obviousness standards are more effectively applied in invalidity proceedings before a court of law than by officials at the IPO. The advantage that a provision such as Section 3(d) provides is the ability to question an application at the IPO itself without having to go through expensive and time-consuming litigation. The high cost of litigation poses significant barriers. Cases are often settled before reaching a conclusion, in pay-for-delay settlements negotiated by patent owners, where generic manufacturers are essentially paid to stay off the market. Patent litigation is expensive, but it is the patient who eventually pays a higher price — by being subject to exorbitant medicine prices, driven by the unmerited exclusivity that bad patents create.

11.Which of the following is true about the rulings of the Supreme Court and the Madras High Court in the cases against Section 3(d) of Indian Patents Act of 1970?

A.both the courts ruled against the section

B.the Madras High Court ruled against it while the Supreme Court supported the section

C.the Supreme Court ruled against it while the Madras High Court supported the section

D.the Madras High Court supported the section while the Supreme Court is yet to clear its stand

E.both the courts ruled in favour of the section

12.Which incident led to a boost in the adoptability of section 3(d) of the Patents Act?

A.the Madras High Court ruling against section 3(d)

B.the passage of the amendment in section 3(d) by the parliament

C.the spur in cases of deaths due to spurious drugs

D.the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Novartis case

E.the adoption of a similar provision in the United States

13.Why did the amendments made by India to the Indian Patents Act of 1970, in 2005, receive a flak from the rest of the world?

A.it made it easier for spurious drugs to get into the Indian markets

B.it leads to a conflict of interest among the doctors of the public and private hospitals

C.it made the standards for patents in India stronger than those in the rest of the world

D.it added an ambiguous clause in the act governing the patents

E.it made the Indian pharmaceutical market more attractive than the rest of the world

14.As per the passage, how does the concept of patentability help in achieving increased efficacy?

A.it encourages improvement in the performance of an invention

B.it rejects the common products wrapped into new packaging

C.it disparages the inventions coming from less-known applicants

D.it ensures the standards of the industry are followed by assisting in invention

E.it provides monetary support to the patent applicants

15.What is section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act?

it restricts the usage of known substances in new medicines

it restricts the patenting of new forms of known pharmaceutical substances

it restricts the patenting of new forms of known pharmaceutical substances

it limits the usage of known pharmaceutical substances up to a limit in the drugs

it necessitates the usage of known pharmaceutical substances in the patenting of drugs

16.Why should section 3(d) be preferred over the over the criteria of non-obviousness for granting patents?

it is more feasible for the parent officials to be adopted

it has not invited any kind of criticism till date

it saves the cost associated with litigation

it encourages further growth in the pharmaceutical industry

More than one of the above

17.What is “non-obviousness” in context of the passage?

it is a guideline issued by the parliament to regularise the grant of patents in the pharmaceutical industry

it a criteria used by the Indian Patents Office to reject many patent applications

it is a term coined in the Indian Patens Act for the first time in 1970

it is the term which forms the foundation of the concept of granting patents

None of the above

18.On what basis 45% of the pharmaceutical patent applications were rejected under Section 3(d)?

they lacked a demonstrable increase in therapeutic value

they had more side-effects than the allowed limit

they didn’t showcase “state-of-the-art” research

they were a result of the contribution of foreign methodology

None of the above

EXPLANATIONS:

S1. Ans. (b)

Sol. Reading the sentence we can see that the sentence is discussing about government’s efforts in favour of someone/ something. So, the sentence will begin from [4]. Following [4] will be [1] which adds meaning to [4] as [1] explains what ‘they’ were used for. Then [2] will be the next phrase as [1] and [2] both give examples. Following [2] is [3]. Thus 4123 will be arrangement. Hence, option (b) will be the correct answer choice.

S2. Ans. (a)

Sol. The beginning phrase will be [1] as none other phrase can be used. [1] discusses about a trio who has redeveloped some kind of field which is mentioned in the [4], so [4] will follow [1]. Then [3] will follow [4] as it explains how the trio redeveloped i.e. by the use of new technology which is mentioned in the [3]. Last phrase will be [2]. Hence, the correct arrangement sequence will be 1432. Thus, the correct option is (a).

S3. Ans. (d)

Sol. [3] will be the first phrase which gives the introduction of a person. The following phrase will be [1] as it adds meaning to [3]. Then, out of [2] and [4], [2] will follow [1] as choosing [2] be the last phrase will make the sentence incomplete. Hence the arrangement will be 3124. Hence, the correct answer choice will be (d).

S4. Ans. (b)

Sol. [1], [2] and [3]; all can be the beginning phrase, but from the given phrases choosing [1] and [2] will the sentence structure absurd. So, [3] will be the beginning phrase. Following [3] will be [1] which then be followed by [4]. Thus, the sentence arrangement will be 3142. Hence, the correct answer choice be (b). 

S5. Ans. (d)

Sol. From the given phrases [3] will be the beginning phrase because all other phrases have connectors as the first word. [3] explains about three economists. [3] will be followed by [1] as it gives the name of first two economist. Then [2] will be the next phrase as [2] gives the name of the third economists. Thus, the rearrangement will be 3124. Hence, the correct answer choice will be (d).

S6. Ans. (c)

Sol. The rearranged sentences when read explain about three economists have been awarded Noble. These economists are mentioned in (E). But it can’t be the first statement as talks about change of some ‘status quo’. When read, we can infer that (E) is talking about the change in the position of poor which are mentioned in (C). So, (C) will be the first statement. Following (C) will be (A) as it explains the example of the statement mentioned in (C). Out of (E) and (C), (E) will be the next statement as it names the economists who are then mentioned in (D). (B) fails to become part of the rearrangement as it discusses about some economists, but we are not given the name of that economist. Thus, rearrangement will be CAED. Hence, the correct answer choice is (c).

S7. Ans. (d)

Sol. The given sentence discusses about the problem of slowdown in the economy. So, from the given options (C) would go in the blank [I]. As for [II], ‘mandarins’ which is used as a synonym for official, will fit.

Irascible: having or showing a tendency to be easily angered.

Monologue: a long, tedious speech by one person during a conversation.

Malaise: a general feeling of discomfort, illness, or unease whose exact cause is difficult to identify.

Loquacious: tending to talk a great deal; talkative.

Consternations: a feeling of anxiety or dismay, typically at something unexpected.

Hence, option (d) is correct answer choice.

S8. Ans. (e)

Sol.

For the blank [I], ‘moribund’ would be contextually incorrect and ‘vitriolic’ does not fit in as per the theme of the sentence. For [II] ‘contagion’ will fit.

Vigour: effort, energy, and enthusiasm.

Vitriolic: filled with bitter criticism or malice.

Moribund: (of a thing) in terminal decline; lacking vitality or vigour.

Azure: a bright blue colour.

Contagion: the spreading of a harmful idea or practice.

Askance: with an attitude or look of suspicion or disapproval.

Hence, the correct answer choice is (e).

S9. Ans. (a)

Sol.

The sentence is discussing about either increase or decrease in the growth. But the two factors given in the end of the sentence proves that the growth is decreasing. Thus, option (B) fits in blank [I]. (E) will fit both grammatically and contextually in [II].

Interminable: endless or apparently endless (often used hyperbolically).

Unobtrusive: not conspicuous or attracting attention.

Perpetual: never ending or changing.

Despondent: in low spirits from loss of hope or courage.

Elevated: (of a level or amount) higher or greater than normal.

Lurid: unpleasantly bright in colour, especially so as to create a harsh or unnatural effect.

Hence, correct answer choice is (a).

S10. Ans. (c)

Sol.

Idiosyncratic: relating to idiosyncrasy; peculiar or individual.

Indigent: poor; needy.

Solicitous: characterized by or showing interest or concern.

Insouciance: casual lack of concern; indifference.

Mendacious: not telling the truth; lying.

Tenacious: tending to keep a firm hold of something; clinging or adhering closely.

Hence, the correct answer choice is option (c).

READING COMPREHENSION

11.As per the passage, both the courts favoured the sections and ruled decisively to uphold its legality.

Thus, option (e) is the right answer.

Refer to Paragraph 5, “Over its short lifetime, Section 3(d) has survived a challenge to its constitutionality before the Madras High Court, and Novartis’s fight against the rejection of its patent that went to the Supreme Court. Both courts ruled decisively to uphold the legality of Section 3(d).”

12.As per the passage, it was the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Novartis case which led to a boost in the adoptability of section 3(d) of the Patents Act.

Thus, option (d) is the right answer.

Refer to Paragraph 7, “Though introduced in 2005, the use of Section 3(d) gradually increased from 2009 when mailbox applications were examined. The spike coincides with the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Novartis case, in April 2013. It would appear that this judgment provided legal certainty to Indian patent law in general, and Section 3(d) in particular, enabling the IPO to weed out trivial innovations.”

13.It can be understood from the passage that the amendments made by India to the Indian Patents Act of 1970, in 2005, received a flak from the rest of the world as the standards for patents proposed in the amendments were stricter than the ones present in the rest of the world.

Thus, option (c) is the right answer.

Refer to Paragraphs 1 and 2, “In 2005, India made some remarkable amendments to the Indian Patents Act of 1970, to keep medicines affordable in the country. Since then we have faced a significant blowback not just from the global pharmaceutical industry but also from developed world including from the U.S. and the European Union.

At the heart of the matter are the strong standards for patents which India introduced to promote genuine innovation across all fields of technology, in perfect compliance with the World Trade Organisation (WTO) norms. In contrast, developed countries have weaker standards as a result of incessant lobbying by corporate behemoths. Twelve years later, we now know what it means: India rejects bad patents in far greater number than developed countries.”

14.It can be understood from the passage that the concept of patentability encourages necessary improvement in the performance of an invention and thus, helps in achieving increased efficacy.

Thus, option (a) is the right answer.

Refer to Paragraph 9, “In cases where the invention is a variant of a known substance, the criterion for patentability is proof of a necessary improvement in its performance for its designated use, i.e., increased efficacy. In the context of pharmaceuticals, as was the case involving Novartis, this translates to evidence of an improvement in therapeutic efficacy.”

15.As per the passage, section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act restricts the patenting of new forms of known pharmaceutical substances.

Thus, option (b) is the right answer.

Refer to Paragraph 4, “Section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act, a provision introduced to restrict the patenting of new forms of known pharmaceutical substances, became the subject of international attention after its use in rejecting a patent application by Novartis for the anti-cancer drug, Gleevec.”

16.As per the passage, sections 3(d) should be preferred over the criteria of non-obviousness as the former is more efficient to be used by the patent officials and also saves the cost associated with litigation.

Thus, option (e) is the right answer.

Refer to the last Paragraph, “But non-obviousness standards are more effectively applied in invalidity proceedings before a court of law than by officials at the IPO. The advantage that a provision such as Section 3(d) provides is the ability to question an application at the IPO itself without having to go through expensive and time-consuming litigation. The high cost of litigation poses significant barriers. Cases are often settled before reaching a conclusion, in pay-for-delay settlements negotiated by patent owners, where generic manufacturers are essentially paid to stay off the market.”

17.As per the passage, “non-obviousness” is a criteria which has been frequently used by the Indian Patents Office to reject a majority of patent applications.

Thus, option (b) is the right answer.

Refer to Paragraph 8, “Our basic patentability criteria, that the invention should be new, involve an inventive step (also known as non-obviousness), and should be capable of industrial application, were the most frequently used grounds for rejection, followed by the exceptions to patentability grounds in Section 3.”

18.As per the passage, 45% of the pharmaceutical patent applications were rejected under Section 3(d) on the basis of not contributing any demonstrable increase in therapeutic value.

Thus, option (a) is the right answer.

Refer to Paragraph 6, “An astonishing 45% of all rejected pharmaceutical patent applications cited Section 3(d) as a reason for rejection: the applications were identified as mere variants of known compounds that lacked a demonstrable increase in therapeutic value.”


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