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Direction(1-5): Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.

Paragraph 1: In its early days, socialism was a revolutionary movement of which the object was the liberation of the wage-earning classes and the establishment of freedom and justice. The passage from capitalism to the new regime was to be sudden and violent: capitalists were to be expropriated without compensation, and their power was not to be replaced by any new authority. Gradually a change came over the spirit of socialism. In France, socialists became members of the government, and made and unmade parliamentary majorities. In Germany, social democracy grew so strong that it became impossible for it to resist the temptation to barter away some of its intransigeance in return for government recognition of its claims. In England, the Fabians taught the advantage of reform as against revolution, and of conciliatory bargaining as against irreconcilable antagonism.

Paragraph 2: The method of gradual reform has many merits as compared to the method of revolution, and I have no wish to preach revolution. But gradual reform has certain dangers, to wit, the ownership or control of businesses hitherto in private hands, and by encouraging legislative interference for the benefit of various sections of the wage-earning classes. I think it is at least doubtful whether such measures do anything at all to contribute toward the ideals which inspired the early socialists and still inspire the great majority of those who advocate some form of socialism.

Paragraph 3: Let us take as an illustration such a measure as state purchase of railways. This is a typical object of state socialism, thoroughly practicable, already achieved in many countries, and clearly the sort of step that must be taken in any piecemeal approach to complete collectivism. Yet I see no reason to believe that any real advance toward democracy, freedom, or economic justice is achieved when a state takes over the railways after full compensation to the shareholders.

Paragraph 4: Economic justice demands a diminution, if not a total abolition, of the proportion of the national income which goes to the recipients of rent and interest. But when the holders of railway shares are given government stock to replace their shares, they are given the prospect of an income in perpetuity equal to what they might reasonably expect to have derived from their shares. Unless there is reason to expect a great increase in the earnings of railways, the whole operation does nothing to alter the distribution of wealth. This could only be effected if the present owners were expropriated, or paid less than the market value, or given a mere life-interest as compensation. When full value is given, economic justice is not advanced in any degree.

Paragraph 5: There is equally little advance toward freedom. The men employed on the railway have no more voice than they had before in the management of the railway, or in the wages and conditions of work. Instead of having to fight the directors, with the possibility of an appeal to the government, they now have to fight the government directly; and experience does not lead to the view that a government department has any special tenderness toward the claims of labor. If they strike, they have to contend against the whole organized power of the state, which they can only do successfully if they happen to have a strong public opinion on their side. In view of the influence which the state can always exercise on the press, public opinion is likely to be biased against them, particularly when a nominally progressive government is in power. There will no longer be the possibility of divergences between the policies of different railways. Railway men in England derived advantages for many years from the comparatively liberal policy of the North Eastern Railway, which they were able to use as an argument for a similar policy elsewhere. Such possibilities are excluded by the dead uniformity of state administration.

1. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
A) Pitfalls of socialism
B) Pitfalls of Gradual Reform towards Socialism
C) Socialism and Economic Justice
D) Socialism and Democracy

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the Fabians, in order to achieve socialism….

A) preferred reform against revolution, and conciliatory bargaining against antagonism .
B) preferred reform against revolution, and expropriation of property as against conciliatory bargaining.
C) preferred revolution against reform, and conciliatory bargaining against expropriation
D) preferred revolution against reform, and a sudden and violent change to socialism

3. Which of the following reasons is/are advanced by the writer as the demerits of gradual reform?
(i) State ownership or control of business after full compensation to share holders
(ii) Expropration of shares
(iii) The government machinery becomes a formidable adversary for the workers.
(iv) The uniformity of the state administration
A) (i), (ii) and (iii)
B) (i), (iii) and (iv)
C) Only (ii)
D) Only (iii)

4. It is the writers belief that a piecemeal approach to collectivism does not…….
A) ensure economic justice
B) further the cause of democracy
C) help realize the ideals of early socialists
D) All of the above

5. But gradual reform has certain dangers, to wit, the ownership or control… to wit in the context means which of the following?
A) to come to know
B) with humour
C) to reason
D) namely

Directions (6-10): Rearrange the following six sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.

(A) The reasons for the nationalization of the industry are concerned mostly with the unethical practices adopted by some of the players against the interest of the insurance consumers.

(B) The Indian insurance Industry is as old as it is in any other part of the world.

(C) Along with these achievements there, however, also grew a feeling of insensitivity to the needs of the market which probably led to a feeling amongst the public that the insurance industry was not fully responsive to customer needs.

(D) The first insurance company in India was started in 1818 in Kolkata.

(E) Nationalisation has lent the industry solidity, growth and outreach, which is unparalleled.

(F) We had a number of foreign and Indian insurance companies operating in the Indian Market till the nationalization of the industry took place. 

6. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?

(a) A

(b) B

(c) C

(d) D

(e) E

7. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?

(a) B

(b) C

(c) D

(d) E

(e) F

8. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?

(a) C

(b) D

(c) E

(d) F

(e) A

9. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?

(a) D

(b) E

(c) F

(d) A

(e) B

10. Which of the following should be the LAST (SIXTH) sentence after rearrangement?

(a) E

(b) F

(c) A

(d) B

(e) C

Answer - 

1. Option A
Option B) is slight distortion, though major part of the passage is discussing this, because the writer first states, the method of gradual reform has many merits as compared to the method of revolution, and I have no wish to preach revolution. Hence he deals with socialism in general rather than reform alone. Option C) is too broad- It would be a different essay if these ideas are discussed. Option D) also has the same problem.

2. Option A
Explanation: In England, the principal activities of the Fabian society consisted in the furtherance of its goal of socialism through the education of the public along socialist lines by means of meetings, lectures, discussion groups, conferences and summer schools; carrying out research into political, economic and social problems; and publishing books, pamphlets, and periodicals. This is in line with what is stated in Option A)

3. Option C
Explanation: (ii) or expropriation is not an aspect of gradual reform, hence not a demerit either. The others are stated in the passage at different places.

4. Option D
Explanation: Economic justice demands a diminution… etc. justifies A). The workers situation justifies B). C) is clearly in I Think it is at least doubtful whether such measures do anything at all to contribute towards the ideals which inspired the early socialists and still inspire the great majority of those who advocates some form of socialism.

5. Option D
Explanation: to wit (adverb) is an idiom and it means namely or that is to say

(6-10). Exp. The correct sequence to form meaningful paragraph is BDFAEC.