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SSC CGL (Tier - 2) Online Exam Paper - 2018 "held on 13 September 2019" Evening Shift (English Language and Comprehension)

SSC CGL (Tier - 2) Online Exam Paper - 2018 "held on 13 September 2019" Evening Shift (English Language and Comprehension)


  • Exam Name: SSC CGL (Tier - 2)
  • Year: 2018
  • EXAM DATE : 13 September 2019
  • EXAM START TIME : 03.00
  • Total Marks: 200     
Q.1 Given below are four jumbled sentences. Pick the option that gives their correct order.
A. Using his mother’s show-business contacts, Charlie became a professional entertainer in 1897.
B. He spent his early childhood with his mother, the singer Hannah Hall, after she and his father separated.
C. Even today Charlie is widely regarded as the greatest comic artist of the screen and one of the most important figures in motion-picture history.
D. Charlie Chaplin was born on April 16, 1889 in London and named after his father, a British music-hall entertainer.
1. CBDA
2. CABD
3. DABC
4. DBAC
Corret answer : DBAC
Q.2 Select the most appropriate option to fill in the blank.
All human beings must learn to live in ______ with nature.
1. kindness
2. pleasure
3. admiration
4. harmony
Corret answer : harmony
Q.3 Find a word that is the ANTONYM OFanimosity
1. sarcasm
2. benevolence
3. bitterness
4. contamination
Corret answer : benevolence
Q.4 Choose the most appropriate option to change the voice (active / passive) form of the given sentence.
I regret the way I treated you.
1. I regret the way you were being treated by me.
2. I regret the way you were treated by me.
3. I regret the way I am treating you.
4. I regret the way you treated me.
Corret answer : I regret the way you were treated by me.
Q.5 Choose the most appropriate option to change the voice (active / passive) form of the given sentence.
I owe a big debt of gratitude to my mentor, Ms. Pallavi Dutta.
1. A big debt of gratitude had been owed by me to my mentor,Ms. Pallavi Dutta.
2. A big debt of gratitude was owing by me to my mentor,Ms. Pallavi Dutta.
3. A big debt of gratitude will be owed by to my mentor, Ms. Pallavi Dutta.
4. A big debt of gratitude is owed by me to my mentor, Ms Pallavi Dutta.
Corret answer : A big debt of gratitude is owed by me to my mentor, Ms Pallavi Dutta
Q.6 Choose the most appropriate option to change the narration (direct / indirect) of the given sentence.
Mrs. Sethi said to her students, “Would you like to go outdoors for the yoga class?”
1. Mrs Sethi asked her students whether they would like to go outdoors for the yoga class.
2. Mrs Sethi asked her students about their liking to go outdoors for the yoga class.
3. Mrs Sethi told her students that would you like to go outdoors for the yoga class.
4. Mrs Sethi said to her students will you like to go outdoors for the yoga class?
Corret answer : Mrs Sethi asked her students whether they would like to go outdoors for the yoga class.
Q.7 Choose the most appropriate option to change the voice (active / passive) form of the given sentence..
Did the boys take permission to go out today?
1. Are the boys taking permission to go out today?
2. Was permission to go out today taken by the boys?
3. Has permission to going out today been taking by the boys?
4. Had the boys taken permission to go out today?
Corret answer : Was permission to go out today taken by the boys?
Q.8 Choose the most appropriate option to change the voice (active / passive) form of the given sentence.
My friends persuaded me that I should forgive him.
1. I was persuaded by my friends that he should be forgiven.
2. I will have been persuaded by my friends to forgive him.
3. I am being persuaded by my friends that he should be forgiven.
4. I will be persuaded by my friends that he should be forgiven.
Corret answer : I was persuaded by my friends that he should be forgiven.
Q.9 Choose the most appropriate option to change the narration (direct / indirect) of the given sentence.
‘Let’s not go out today. It’s going to be a hot day,” he said to me.
1. He suggested that we shouldn’t be going out that day as it is going to be a hot day.
2. He is suggesting that they shouldn’t go out today as it was going to be a hot day.
3. He suggested that we shouldn’t go out that day as it was going to be a hot day.
4. He had suggested that they shouldn’t go out today as it was going to be a hot day.
Corret answer : He suggested that we shouldn’t go out that day as it was going to be a hot day.
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followDust storms of May 2018, in Northern India, contributed to the deteriorating air quality in the region and the capital city of Delhi, with implications for human health, a study found. The high death toll from the severe dust storms that lashed the region was mainly attributed to the intense winds, which surprised even scientists and meteorologists. But apart from the immediate damage to life and property, drastic changes in air quality from the dust engulfing the region affected far more people with potential implications for human health, stated a team of researchers who analysed the impact of the spell of dust storms that struck the region that month. They reported increases in particulate matter, mainly in Delhi and urged for an early warning system. Dust storms commonly occur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains – the fertile plains in northern India that stretch all the way to the East – from March to May, the pre-monsoon season. Westerly winds typically bring loose sand and soil particles, picked up from the Arabian Peninsula or the Thar Desert in North Western India, to the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The dust tends to worsen air quality over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, home to around 900 million people, which can have far-reaching effects on human health. While dust storms are a regular feature in the region, the May 2018 dust storms specifically had a death toll of about 100 people, with around 200 people injured. “We are concerned that the dust impacts the health of people who get exposed,” said a senior professor. However, he also observed that scattered rains occurring soon after the dust storms tend to clean up the dust, improving air quality. During October-November, densely populated cities like Delhi and Kanpur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains are vulnerable to windborne long-range air pollution from crop residue burning in the North, and now this study “shows the effect of dust storms during the March-May time frame,” Sarkar pointed out. “This really puts the Indo-Gangetic valley in a unique spot in terms of it being targeted by these different hazardous conditions which are mostly outsourced from other areas.” 
Q.10 Dust storms in Delhi are a cause of concern as they
1. cause strong winds.
2. affect Delhi alone.
3. challenge scientists.
4. are a health hazard.
Corret answer : are a health hazard.
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followDust storms of May 2018, in Northern India, contributed to the deteriorating air quality in the region and the capital city of Delhi, with implications for human health, a study found. The high death toll from the severe dust storms that lashed the region was mainly attributed to the intense winds, which surprised even scientists and meteorologists. But apart from the immediate damage to life and property, drastic changes in air quality from the dust engulfing the region affected far more people with potential implications for human health, stated a team of researchers who analysed the impact of the spell of dust storms that struck the region that month. They reported increases in particulate matter, mainly in Delhi and urged for an early warning system. Dust storms commonly occur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains – the fertile plains in northern India that stretch all the way to the East – from March to May, the pre-monsoon season. Westerly winds typically bring loose sand and soil particles, picked up from the Arabian Peninsula or the Thar Desert in North Western India, to the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The dust tends to worsen air quality over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, home to around 900 million people, which can have far-reaching effects on human health. While dust storms are a regular feature in the region, the May 2018 dust storms specifically had a death toll of about 100 people, with around 200 people injured. “We are concerned that the dust impacts the health of people who get exposed,” said a senior professor. However, he also observed that scattered rains occurring soon after the dust storms tend to clean up the dust, improving air quality. During October-November, densely populated cities like Delhi and Kanpur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains are vulnerable to windborne long-range air pollution from crop residue burning in the North, and now this study “shows the effect of dust storms during the March-May time frame,” Sarkar pointed out. “This really puts the Indo-Gangetic valley in a unique spot in terms of it being targeted by these different hazardous conditions which are mostly outsourced from other areas.” 
Q.11 Dust storms are caused by
1. winds from the North.
2. winds from the South.
3. Westerly winds.
4. Easterly winds.
Corret answer : Westerly winds.
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followDust storms of May 2018, in Northern India, contributed to the deteriorating air quality in the region and the capital city of Delhi, with implications for human health, a study found. The high death toll from the severe dust storms that lashed the region was mainly attributed to the intense winds, which surprised even scientists and meteorologists. But apart from the immediate damage to life and property, drastic changes in air quality from the dust engulfing the region affected far more people with potential implications for human health, stated a team of researchers who analysed the impact of the spell of dust storms that struck the region that month. They reported increases in particulate matter, mainly in Delhi and urged for an early warning system. Dust storms commonly occur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains – the fertile plains in northern India that stretch all the way to the East – from March to May, the pre-monsoon season. Westerly winds typically bring loose sand and soil particles, picked up from the Arabian Peninsula or the Thar Desert in North Western India, to the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The dust tends to worsen air quality over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, home to around 900 million people, which can have far-reaching effects on human health. While dust storms are a regular feature in the region, the May 2018 dust storms specifically had a death toll of about 100 people, with around 200 people injured. “We are concerned that the dust impacts the health of people who get exposed,” said a senior professor. However, he also observed that scattered rains occurring soon after the dust storms tend to clean up the dust, improving air quality. During October-November, densely populated cities like Delhi and Kanpur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains are vulnerable to windborne long-range air pollution from crop residue burning in the North, and now this study “shows the effect of dust storms during the March-May time frame,” Sarkar pointed out. “This really puts the Indo-Gangetic valley in a unique spot in terms of it being targeted by these different hazardous conditions which are mostly outsourced from other areas.” 
Q.12 The notable fact about pollution in Oct to Nov is that ______
1. Westerly winds bring loose sand and soil particles
2. dust storms are a regular feature.
3. it is caused by crop burning in North India.
4. it is caused by the winds from Thar Desert.
Corret answer : it is caused by crop burning in North India.
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followDust storms of May 2018, in Northern India, contributed to the deteriorating air quality in the region and the capital city of Delhi, with implications for human health, a study found. The high death toll from the severe dust storms that lashed the region was mainly attributed to the intense winds, which surprised even scientists and meteorologists. But apart from the immediate damage to life and property, drastic changes in air quality from the dust engulfing the region affected far more people with potential implications for human health, stated a team of researchers who analysed the impact of the spell of dust storms that struck the region that month. They reported increases in particulate matter, mainly in Delhi and urged for an early warning system. Dust storms commonly occur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains – the fertile plains in northern India that stretch all the way to the East – from March to May, the pre-monsoon season. Westerly winds typically bring loose sand and soil particles, picked up from the Arabian Peninsula or the Thar Desert in North Western India, to the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The dust tends to worsen air quality over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, home to around 900 million people, which can have far-reaching effects on human health. While dust storms are a regular feature in the region, the May 2018 dust storms specifically had a death toll of about 100 people, with around 200 people injured. “We are concerned that the dust impacts the health of people who get exposed,” said a senior professor. However, he also observed that scattered rains occurring soon after the dust storms tend to clean up the dust, improving air quality. During October-November, densely populated cities like Delhi and Kanpur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains are vulnerable to windborne long-range air pollution from crop residue burning in the North, and now this study “shows the effect of dust storms during the March-May time frame,” Sarkar pointed out. “This really puts the Indo-Gangetic valley in a unique spot in terms of it being targeted by these different hazardous conditions which are mostly outsourced from other areas.”  
Q.13 By saying, ‘This really puts the Indo-Gangetic valley in a unique spot’ the writer refers to the fact that
1. the Indo- Gangetic valley receives its pollution from other areas or factors.
2. the valley is affected by pollution caused by hazardous industries.
3. intense winds in the valley surprise even scientists and meteorologists.
4. studies find that only the valley faces pollution all year round.
Corret answer : the Indo- Gangetic valley receives its pollution from other areas or factors.
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followDust storms of May 2018, in Northern India, contributed to the deteriorating air quality in the region and the capital city of Delhi, with implications for human health, a study found. The high death toll from the severe dust storms that lashed the region was mainly attributed to the intense winds, which surprised even scientists and meteorologists. But apart from the immediate damage to life and property, drastic changes in air quality from the dust engulfing the region affected far more people with potential implications for human health, stated a team of researchers who analysed the impact of the spell of dust storms that struck the region that month. They reported increases in particulate matter, mainly in Delhi and urged for an early warning system. Dust storms commonly occur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains – the fertile plains in northern India that stretch all the way to the East – from March to May, the pre-monsoon season. Westerly winds typically bring loose sand and soil particles, picked up from the Arabian Peninsula or the Thar Desert in North Western India, to the Indo-Gangetic Plains. The dust tends to worsen air quality over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, home to around 900 million people, which can have far-reaching effects on human health. While dust storms are a regular feature in the region, the May 2018 dust storms specifically had a death toll of about 100 people, with around 200 people injured. “We are concerned that the dust impacts the health of people who get exposed,” said a senior  professor. However, he also observed that scattered rains occurring soon after the dust storms tend to clean up the dust, improving air quality. During October-November, densely populated cities like Delhi and Kanpur in the Indo-Gangetic Plains are vulnerable to windborne long-range air pollution from crop residue burning in the North, and now this study “shows the effect of dust storms during the March-May time frame,” Sarkar pointed out. “This really puts the Indo-Gangetic valley in a unique spot in terms of it being targeted by these different hazardous conditions which are mostly outsourced from other areas.” 
Q.14 Choose the correct sequence in which events take place -
What you will get:
1. Strong winds- poor air quality -dust storms- - death and disease
2. Dust storms- poor air quality- strong winds -death and disease
3. Dust storms - death and disease-strong winds- poor air quality
4. Strong winds- dust storms- poor air quality- death and disease
Corret answer : Strong winds- dust storms- poor air quality- death and disease
Q.15 Given below are four jumbled sentences. Pick the option that gives their correct order.
A. New ideas on marketing were brainstormed and all the members agreed to try them forthwith.
B. Upon their return from anoff-site camp Ravi and Sunil decided to hold a meeting.
C. As soon as everyone assembled, the meeting which lasted for four hours, began.
D. Its purpose was to replace some of the old ways of marketing used by the company with new ones.
1. ACBD
2. BDAC
3. CDBA
4. BCDA
Corret answer : BCDA
Q.16 Identify the best way to improve the underlined part of the given sentence. If there is no improvement required, select ‘no improvement’-
I’m thinking to buy a new car as my old one is giving me trouble.
1. thinks to buying
2. thinking of buying
3. thought to buy
4. no improvement
Corret answer : thinking of buying
Q.17 Select the word which methe same as the group of words given.
exercising a compelling charm
1. dismissive
2. vapid
3. charismatic
4. uninspiring
Corret answer : charismatic
Q.18 Choose the most appropriate option to change the voice (active / passive) form of the given sentence.
They shifted the venue of the conference.
1. The venue of the conference was shifted.
2. The venue of the conference has been shifted.
3. They are shifting the venue of the conference.
4. They were shifting the venue of the conference.
Corret answer : The venue of the conference was shifted.
Q.19 Given below are four jumbled sentences. Pick the option that gives their correct order.
A. There is a story about an ancient Indian sage who was called ugly names by a passerby.
B. The sage then said, “Well then, I have not accepted your offering” and walked away.
C. He finally asked the man, “If an offering is not accepted who does it belong to?” at which the man replied, “To the person who offered it.”
D. The sage listened unperturbed till the man ran out of words.
1. CABD
2. ACDB
3. DCBA
4. ADCB
Corret answer : ADCB
Q.20 Identify the word that is misspelt.
1. definitely
2. accidentally
3. conscience
4. chargable
Corret answer : chargable
Q.21 Select the segment which has an error.
Over the years, the writer Amish has evolved to what millions of youngsters aspires to be today – an intellectual.
1. Over the years
2. aspires to be today
3. Amish has evolved
4. millions of youngsters
Corret answer :  millions of youngsters
Q.22 Select the most appropriate idiom ( in the context) to fill in the sentence.
Rohit was ______ when he took important decisions without consulting the family.
1. cutting the red tape
2. told to get a new lease of life
3. in the same boat
4. told to fight his own battles himself
Corret answer : cutting the red tape
Q.23 Select the segment which has an error.
Each film will be checked by a government-appointed censor board along public exhibition.
1. along public exhibition.
2. each film
3. by a government-appointed censor board
4. will be checked
Corret answer : along public exhibition.
Q.24 Identify the best way to improve the underlined part of the given sentence. If there is no improvement required, select ‘no improvement’-
The books those I gave you is mine . Please don’t misplace them or lend them to someone else.
1. that I gave you are mine
2. no improvement
3. that I gave to you is my
4. which I gives to you is mine
Corret answer : that I gave you are mine
Q.25 Given below are four jumbled sentences. Pick the option that gives their correct order.
A. It was called the ‘take ownership’ programme, and it worked.
B. The programme was a huge success in reviving the corporate culture of the bankand in reviving the bank’s stock price.
C. My colleagues and I felt and behaved like owners, because we actually were.
D. I once worked for a large bank that gave stock options to all of its employees.
1. CDBA
2. DACB
3. ADCB
4. CABD
Corret answer : DACB
Q.26 Choose the most appropriate option to change the narration (direct / indirect) of the given sentence.
Kapil said to his team, “If you don’t perform well in this match, you will not get a place in the team.”
1. Kapil told to his team if you don’t perform well in this match, you will not get a place in the team.
2. Kapil warned his team that if they didn’t perform well in that match, they would not get a place in the team.
3. Kapil warned to his team, if they don’t perform well in this match, they will not get a place in the team.
4. Kapil said to his team that if you don’t perform well in that match, you will not get a place in the team.
Corret answer : Kapil warned his team that if they didn’t perform well in that match, they would not get a place in the team.
Q.27 Identify the best way to improve the underlined part of the given sentence. If there is no improvement required, select ‘no improvement’-
The author is not well known. Little bit people have heard of him.
1. no improvement
2. A little bit of people
3. A few person
4. Few people
Corret answer : Few people
Q.28 Select the segment which has an error.
It is be said that in 2019 the Indian Stock Market will fall drastically and we can expect that fall very soon.
1. we can expect
2. It is be said
3. that in 2019
4. the Indian Stock Market will fall
Corret answer : It is be said
Q.29 Choose the most appropriate option to change the narration (direct / indirect) of the given sentence.
“I will be twenty five tomorrow”, said Vidushi.
1. Vidushi is saying that she will be twenty five by tomorrow.
2. Vidushi said that she would be twenty five the next day.
3. Vidushi will say that she would be twenty five tomorrow.
4. Vidushi had told that me she would be twenty five the next day.
Corret answer : Vidushi said that she would be twenty five the next day.
Q.30 Choose the most appropriate option to change the voice (active / passive) form of the given sentence.
My grandmother believes that drinking a glass of milk at bedtime is essential for health.
1. It is believed by my grandmother that drinking a glass of milk at bedtime is essential for health.
2. It is being believed by my grandmother that drinking a glass of milk at bedtime is essential for health..
3. It will have been believed by my grandmother that drinking a glass of milk at bedtime is essential for health..
4. It has been believed by my grandmother that drinking a glass of milk at bedtime is essential for health.
Corret answer : It is believed by my grandmother that drinking a glass of milk at bedtime is essential for health.
Q.31 Select the most appropriate idiom ( in the context) to fill in the sentence.
Radha is unable to continue working in this office. Hard work is ______ on her health.
1. making her meet both ends
2. blowing hot and cold
3. keeping an eye
4. taking a toll on
Corret answer : It is believed by my grandmother that drinking a glass of milk at bedtime is essential for health.
Q.32 Find a word that is the synonym of - mercurial
1. interchangeable
2. predictable
3. permanent
4. volatile
Corret answer : permanent
Q.33 Select the word which methe same as the group of words given.
diverse in character or event
1. homogenous
2. assiduous
3. heterogeneous
4. horrendous
Corret answer : homogenous
Q.34 Identify the best way to improve the underlined part of the given sentence. If there is no improvement required, select ‘no improvement’-
My recent London trip was really special because I was being able to meet my nephew and his family after many years.
1. was able to meet
2. am unable to
3. no improvement
4. has able to
Corret answer : was able to meet
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and fill in each blank with words chosen from options given. Uncertainty looms over the revival of Naini Lake, a waterbody in the middle of Model Town in North Delhi, due to ______ (1) in the opinions of residents and local bodies regarding its desilting and ______ (2). While the Corporation claimed that the lake ______ (3) for years and several attempts by them to initiate a drive to desilt it were halted because of lack of funds or ______ (4) from locals, residents alleged that it is ______ (5) fresh water lake and is free from silt, and only a water treatment plant will be enough to resolve the problem. 
Q.35 Select the most appropriate option to fill in blank No.1
1. feuds
2. protests
3. objections
4. differences
Corret answer : differences
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and fill in each blank with words chosen from options given. Uncertainty looms over the revival of Naini Lake, a waterbody in the middle of Model Town in North Delhi, due to ______ (1) in the opinions of residents and local bodies regarding its desilting and ______ (2). While the Corporation claimed that the lake ______ (3) for years and several attempts by them to initiate a drive to desilt it were halted because of lack of funds or ______ (4) from locals, residents alleged that it is ______ (5) fresh water lake and is free from silt, and only a water treatment plant will be enough to resolve the problem. 
Q.36 Select the most appropriate option to fill in blank No.2
1. evacuation
2. beautification
3. moderation
4. resolution
Corret answer : beautification
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and fill in each blank with words chosen from options given. Uncertainty looms over the revival of Naini Lake, a waterbody in the middle of Model Town in North Delhi, due to ______ (1) in the opinions of residents and local bodies regarding its desilting and ______ (2). While the Corporation claimed that the lake ______ (3) for years and several attempts by them to initiate a drive to desilt it were halted because of lack of funds or ______ (4) from locals, residents alleged that it is ______ (5) fresh water lake and is free from silt, and only a water treatment plant will be enough to resolve the problem. 
Q.37 Select the most appropriate option to fill in blank No.3
1. is desilted
2. is not to be desilted
3. hasn’t been desilted
4. has desilted
Corret answer : hasn’t been desilted
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and fill in each blank with words chosen from options given. Uncertainty looms over the revival of Naini Lake, a waterbody in the middle of Model Town in North Delhi, due to ______ (1) in the opinions of residents and local bodies regarding its desilting and ______ (2). While the Corporation claimed that the lake ______ (3) for years and several attempts by them to initiate a drive to desilt it were halted because of lack of funds or ______ (4) from locals, residents alleged that it is ______ (5) fresh water lake and is free from silt, and only a water treatment plant will be enough to resolve the problem. 
Q.38 Select the most appropriate option to fill in blank No.4
1. activation
2. applause
3. resistance
4. assault
Corret answer :  resistance
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and fill in each blank with words chosen from options given. Uncertainty looms over the revival of Naini Lake, a waterbody in the middle of Model Town in North Delhi, due to ______ (1) in the opinions of residents and local bodies regarding its desilting and ______ (2). While the Corporation claimed that the lake ______ (3) for years and several attempts by them to initiate a drive to desilt it were halted because of lack of funds or ______ (4) from locals, residents alleged that it is ______ (5) fresh water lake and is free from silt, and only a water treatment plant will be enough to resolve the problem.  
Q.39 Select the most appropriate option to fill in blank No.5
1. any
2. some
3. the
4. a
Corret answer : a
Q.40 Choose the most appropriate option to change the narration (direct / indirect) of the given sentence.
The interviewer said, “Rajiv, I’m impressed with you."
1. The interviewer says I am impressed with Rajiv.
2. The interviewer told to Rajiv that he is impressed with him.
3. The interviewer told Rajiv that he was impressed with him. 
4. The interviewer said to Rajiv that he had been impressed with you.
Corret answer : The interviewer told Rajiv that he was impressed with him. 
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology  professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth.The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students. 
Q.41 Parents in Reykjavik take an evening walk at night in order to
1. remain fit and healthy by avoiding drinking at night
2. keep a watch on teenagers to ensure they don’t get into the habit of drinking
3. meet other parents to know and discuss how to control teenagers
4. enjoy the evening stroll with other parents after dinner
Corret answer : keep a watch on teenagers to ensure they don’t get into the habit of drinking
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth. The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits,  evenings sometimes pass without running into any students.
Q.42 What is dramatic about the figures of teenage drinking in Iceland?
1. They’ve remained the same over the years
2. They’ve become the lowest in Europe
3. They’ve gone up by 36%
4. They’ve shot down by 96%
Corret answer : They’ve become the lowest in Europe
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth.The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students. 
Q.43 The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis does the work of
1. showing teenagers anti-abuse programmes, which stop teenagers from drinking.
2. advising many countries on controlling use of drugs etc. by young adults
3. legally allowing children 12 years and more to remain outside their homes after 6 pm.
4. going around at night with patrolling groups in many European countries.
Corret answer : advising many countries on controlling use of drugs etc. by young adults
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches.The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth. The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students. 
Q.44 Teenage drinking in many countries like Denmark, Greece, Hungary, etc has been reported as
1. completely eradicated.
2. the lowest in the world.
3. low compared to Iceland.
4. the highest in the world.
Corret answer : the highest in the world.
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth. The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs.  On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth  centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students.
Q.45 "Cutting teenage substance abuse" refers to
1. teenagers consuming hazardous substances such as alcohol and drugs.
2. parents shaming their young children for their bad habits.
3. reducing consumption of drugs and alcohol among young adults.
4. teenagers who consume alcohol abusing their parents.
Corret answer : reducing consumption of drugs and alcohol among young adults.
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth. The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students. 
Q.46 The programme Planet Youth was started by
1. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis
2. the local municipality of Reykjavik
3. Inga Dora Sigfusdottir
4. Dagur B. Eggertsson
Corret answer : Inga Dora Sigfusdottir
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their  neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking.  Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth. The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar  annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students.   
Q.47 Which of the following does not contribute to the success of Planet Youth programme?
1. Enacting laws against late night movement of teenagers
2. Arranging street gatherings of teenagers
3. Arranging opportunities for music, sports etc.
4. Ensuring parental control and influence
Corret answer : Arranging street gatherings of teenagers
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth. The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students. 
Q.48 From the passage one can conclude that
1. bad habits can be checked by engaging teens in alternative activities.
2. by showing smokers’ diseased lungs to teens, parents can influence them.
3. parents must pay for sports and other activities for their children.
4. strict punishment is needed as it acts as a deterrent.
Corret answer : bad habits can be checked by engaging teens in alternative activities.
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around their neighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, theisland nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth. The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol. Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students. 
Q.49 The word from the passage that me‘change the image of an organisation or program’ is
1. abstain
2. rebrand
3. invest
4. embark
Corret answer : rebrand
Comprehension:
Read the following passage and answer the questions that followParents all over Iceland’s capital Reykjavik embark on a two-hour evening walk around theirneighbourhood every weekend, checking on youth hangouts as a 10 pm curfew approaches. The walk in Reykjavik is one step toward Iceland’s success into turning around a crisis in teenage drinking. Focusing on local participation and promoting more music and sports options for students, the island nation in the North Atlantic has dried up a teenage culture of drinking and smoking. Icelandic teenagers now have one of the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe. The Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, the institute pioneering the project for the past two decades, says it currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries, from Finland to Chile, on cutting teenage substance abuse. “The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals, ” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, a sociology  professor who founded t he Youth of Iceland programme, which now has rebranded as Planet Youth. The secret, she says, is to keep young people busy and parents engaged without talking much about drugs or alcohol. That stands in sharp contrast to other anti-abuse programmes, which try to sway teenagers with school lectures and scary, disgusting ads showing smokers’ rotten lungs or eggs in a frying pan to represent an intoxicated brain. “Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” Ms Sigfusdottir said. In 1999, when thousands of teenagers would gather in Reykjavik every weekend, surveys showed 56% of Icelandic 16-year-olds drank alcohol and about as many had tried smoking. Years later, Iceland has the lowest rates for drinking and smoking among the 35 countries measured in the 2015 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. On average, 80% of European 16-year-olds have tasted alcohol at least once, compared with 35% in Iceland, the only country where more than half of those students completely abstains from alcohol.Denmark, another wealthy Nordic country, has the highest rates of teenage drinking, along with Greece, Hungary and the Czech Republic, where 92% to 96% have consumed alcohol. In the US, teen drinking is a significant health concern, because many US teenagers are driving cars and do not have access to good public transport like teenagers in Europe. Reykjavik mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson said the Icelandic plan “is all about society giving better options” for teens than substance abuse. He believes the wide variety of opportunities that now keep students busy and inspired has dramatically altered the country’s youth culture. Local municipalities like Reykjavik have invested in sport halls, music schools and youth centres.To make the programmes widely available, parents are offered a 500 US dollar annual voucher toward sports or music programmes for their children. Researchers say the Planet Youth prevention model is evolving constantly because it is based on annual surveys to detect trends and measure policy effectiveness. By law, introduced when Icelandic police routinely dealt with alcohol-fuelled street gatherings, children under 12 are not allowed to be outside after 8pm without parents and those 13 to 16 not past 10pm. “We tell the kids if they are out too late, polite and nice, and then they go home,” said Heidar Atlason, a veteran member of the patrol. Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students.  
Q.50 ‘Over Iceland’s harsh winter, one parent admits, evenings sometimes pass without running into any students.’ This me-
1. parents are not motivated to get involved in the programme.
2. students are not bothered about the efforts made for them.
3. the programme is having the right impact on teenagers.
4. authorities are disappointed that the programme has failed
Corret answer : the programme is having the right impact on teenagers.